Sunday, November 28, 2010
The structure and parameterization of a pictorial structure model is often restricted by assuming tree dependency structure and unimodal, data-independent pairwise interactions, which fail to capture important patterns in the data. On the other hand, local methods such as kernel density estimation provide nonparametric flexibility but require large amounts of data to generalize well. We propose a simple semi-parametric approach that combines the tractability of pictorial structure inference with the flexibility of non-parametric methods by expressing a subset of model parameters as kernel regression estimates from a learned sparse set of exemplars. This yields query-specific, image-dependent pose priors. We develop an effective shape-based kernel for upper-body pose similarity and propose a leave-one-out loss function for learning a sparse subset of exemplars for kernel regression. We apply our techniques to two challenging datasets of human figure parsing and advance the state-of-the-art (from 80% to 86% on the Buffy dataset), while using only 15% of the training data as exemplars.
Saturday, November 27, 2010
Lab Meeting November 29th, 2010 (Jeff): Sub-Meter Indoor Localization in Unmodified Environments with Inexpensive Sensors
Authors: Morgan Quigley, David Stavens, Adam Coates, and Sebastian Thrun
The interpretation of uncertain sensor streams for localization is usually considered in the context of a robot. Increasingly, however, portable consumer electronic devices, such as smartphones, are equipped with sensors including WiFi radios, cameras, and inertial measurement units (IMUs). Many tasks typically associated with robots, such as localization, would be valuable to perform on such devices. In this paper, we present an approach for indoor localization exclusively using the low-cost sensors typically found on smartphones. Environment modification is not needed. We rigorously evaluate our method using ground truth acquired using a laser range scanner. Our evaluation includes overall accuracy and a comparison of the contribution of individual sensors. We find experimentally that fusion of multiple sensor modalities is necessary for optimal performance and demonstrate sub-meter localization accuracy.
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems(IROS), October 2010
Monday, November 22, 2010
Sunday, November 21, 2010
Lab Meeting November 22, 2010 (Alan): Temporary Maps for Robust Localization in Semi-static Environments (IROS 2010)
Monday, November 15, 2010
Lab Meeting November 15( KuenHan ), 3D Reconstruction of a Moving Point from a Series of 2D Projections (ECCV 2010)
Author: Hyun Soo Park, Takaaki Shiratori, Iain Matthews, and Yaser Sheikh
This paper presents a linear solution for reconstructing the 3D trajectory of a moving point from its correspondence in a collection of 2D perspective images, given the 3D spatial pose and time of capture of the cameras that produced each image. Triangulation-based solutions do not apply, as multiple views of the point may not exist at each instant in time. A geometric analysis of the problem is presented and a criterion, called reconstructibility, is defined to precisely characterize the cases when reconstruction is possible, and how accurate it can be. We apply the linear reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct the time evolving 3D structure of several real-world scenes, given a collection of non-coincidental 2D images.Link
Sunday, November 14, 2010
Lab Meeting November 15, 2010 (fish60): Unfreezing the Robot: Navigation in Dense, Interacting Crowds
Author: Peter Trautman and Andreas Krause
Abstract—In this paper, we study the safe navigation of a mobile robot through crowds of dynamic agents with uncertain trajectories. Existing algorithms suffer from the “freezing robot” problem: once the environment surpasses a certain level of complexity, the planner decides that all forward paths are unsafe, and the robot freezes in place (or performs unnecessary aneuvers) to avoid collisions. ... In this work, we demonstrate that both the individual prediction and the predictive uncertainty have little to do with the frozen robot problem. Our key insight is that dynamic agents solve the frozen robot problem by engaging in “joint collision avoidance”: They cooperatively make room to create feasible trajectories. We develop IGP, a nonparametric statistical model based on Dependent Output Gaussian Processes that can estimate crowd interaction from data. Our model naturally captures the non-Markov nature of agent trajectories, as well as their goal-driven navigation. We then show how planning in this model can be efficiently implemented using particle based inference.
Monday, November 01, 2010
Joseph A. Djugash
Geolocation with Range: Robustness, Efficiency and Scalability
November 05, 2010, 10:00 a.m., NSH 1507
This thesis explores the topic of geolocation with range. A robust method for localization and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) is proposed. This method uses a polar parameterization of the state to achieve accurate estimates of the nonlinear and multi-modal distributions in range-only systems. Several experimental evaluations on real robots reveal the reliability of this method.
Scaling such a system to large network of nodes, increases the computational load on the system due to the increased state vector. To alleviate this problem, we propose the use of a distributed estimation algorithm based on the belief propagation framework. This method distributes the estimation task, such that each node only estimates its local network, greatly reducing the computation performed by any individual node. However, the method does not provide any guarantees on the convergence of its solution in general graphs. Convergence is only guaranteed for non-cyclic graphs (ie. trees). Thus, an extension of this approach which reduces any arbitrary graph to a spanning tree is presented. This enables the proposed decentralized localization method to provide guarantees on its convergence.
Sanjiv Singh, Chair
Wolfram Burgard, University of Freiburg